Why does चरण come first in चरणकमल ?

Q: In the compound चरणकमल (lotus feet), how come does the word चरण come first in the compound?

Step 1:
The compound is explained by the sūtra 2.1.56 उपमितं व्याघ्रादिभिः सामान्याप्रयोगे। ~ समासः तत्पुरुषः.

Here is the meaning of the sūtra.

A word which is compared (उपमितम्) by words such as tiger (व्याघ्रादिभिः ) is compounded with that word when the common feature is not told (सामान्याप्रयोगे ).

In the case of चरणकमल, चरण (foot) is compared to कमल (lotus), and the common feature because of which the comparison is made, such as purity, is not mentioned (सामान्याप्रयोगे).

सामान्य means that which is common.
अप्रयोग means non-employment

Step 2:
In the sūtra 2.1.56 उपमितम् 1/3 व्याघ्रादिभिः 3/3 सामान्याप्रयोगे 7/1 ।,
the word which is compared is taught in the 1st case.

The meaning of the word taught in the 1st case in a sūtra enjoining compound is termed उपसर्जन by the sūtra1.2.43 प्रथमानिर्दिष्टं समास उपसर्जनम् ।.

By this, the word चरण gains the term उपसर्जन.

Then, the sūtra2.2.30 उपसर्जनं पूर्वम् । gives पूर्वनिपात, placing of a word in front, in the context of compound, to a word termed उपसर्जन.

This is why चरण comes first in the compound चरणकमल.

With prayers..


"प्रयन्ति” in the first anuvāka of भृगु-वल्ली of तैत्तिरीयोपनिषद्

I was just asked about a word in Taittiriya.
As this is a common grammatical question, I added a footnote in my book (Volume 3 of the Study Guide to Paninisutra), and I may share here also.

यतो वा इमानि भूतानि जायन्ते । येन जातानि जीवन्ति । यत्प्रयन्त्यभिशन्ति । तद्विजिज्ञासस्व । तद्ब्रह्मेति ।
The word “प्रयन्ति” in the first anuvāka of भृगु-वल्ली of तैत्तिरीयोपनिषद् is a noun made of प्रातिपदिक प्रयत् in neuter with 1/3 ending.
प्र is the उपसर्ग; इण् गतौ (2P to go) is the धातु; शतृ is the कृत्-प्रत्यय.

इण् गतौ (2P) to go
इ + लट्         3.2.123 वर्तमाने लट् ।
इ + शतृँ         3.2.124 लटः शतृशानचावप्रथमासमानाधिकरणे ।
इ + शप् + अत्     3.1.68 कर्तरि शप् । ~ सार्वधातुके
इ  + अत्         2.4.72 अदिप्रभृतिभ्यः शपः । ~ लुक्
यत्              6.4.81 इणो यण्।   

प्रयत् + जस्
प्रयत् + शि        7.1.20 जश्शसोः शि । ~ नपुंसकात्
प्रय न् त् + इ    7.1.70 उगिदचां सर्वनामस्थानेऽधातोः।
प्रयंत् + इ        8.3.24 नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि । ~ अनुस्वारः
प्रयन्त्+ इ        8.4.58 अनुस्वारस्य ययि परसवर्णः ।

So too, the word गच्छन्ति in the शाङ्करभाष्यम्. (गम् + शतृ) + नपुंसक 1/3



If it is a general word, meaning "in which/that which has good dharma",
the word can be in any linga according to the अन्यपदार्थ.

सु + सुँ + धर्म + सुँ     2.2.24 अनेकमन्यपदार्थे । ~ बहुव्रीहिः समासः
प्रातिपदिकसंज्ञा         1.2.45 कृत्तद्धितसमासाश्च । ~ प्रातिपदिकम्
सु धर्म                      2.4.71 सुपो धातुप्रातिपदिकयोः । ~ लुक्
सु धर्म + अनिच्        5.4.124 धर्मादनिच् केवलात् । ~ बहुव्रीहौ समासान्ताः तद्धिताः
सु धर्म् + अन्            6.4.148 यस्येति च ।

According to अमर, सुधर्मा is a feminine word indicating an aggregation of devas:
देवसभा, सुधर्मा

देवानां सभा देवसभा (6T) aggregation of devas
शोभनः धर्मः अस्यां देवसभायाम् अस्ति इति सुधर्मा (117B) In which there is good dharma.
सभा is a feminine word.

कल्पद्रुम says:
शोभनो धर्म्मोऽस्यामिति .अनिच् . ततः“ डाबुभाभ्यामन्यतरस्याम् .” ४ .१ . १३ . इति पक्षे डाप् .) देवसभा . इत्यमरः .
In this sense, after अनिच्, डाप् is optionally the स्त्रीप्रत्यय.
Another पक्ष is without स्त्रीप्रत्यय because डीप् by 4.1.5 ऋन्नेभ्यो ङीप् । ~ स्त्रियाम् is negated by 4.1.12 अनो बहुव्रीहेः। ~ न ङीप्.
Thus the last forms are सुधर्मा and सुधर्मन्.

सुधर्मा declines:  सुधर्मा, सुधर्मे, सुधर्माः...
सुधर्मन् declines: सुधर्मा, सुधर्मानौ, सुधर्मानः...


Answer to a question "how does उपसर्ग become सुबन्तपद?"

प्र gains प्रातिपदिक-संज्ञा by 1.2.45
प्र gains निपात-संज्ञा by 1.4.58
प्र meaningfully connected to a धातु gains उपसर्ग-संज्ञा by 1.4.59
प्र meaningfully connected to a धातु also gains गति-संज्ञा by 1.4.60
प्र, being निपात, gains अव्यय-संज्ञा by 1.1.37
प्र, being प्रातिपदिक, is suffixed with सुँ by 4.1.2
प्र being अव्यय, सुँ is elided by 2.4.82
प्र is सुबन्तं पदम् by 1.4.13

प्र, being उपसर्ग/गति, is placed before धातु by 1.4.80



Announcement of my new book

Today is the first spring day (in Japanese calendar),

the day of Guru, and Ekadasi, an auspicious day to announce
the completion of my latest Sanskrit Grammar book:
The Study Guide to लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी Part I
Thanks to Arsha Avinash, the electric version is available for free download from http://arshaavinash.in/index.php/download/study-guide-to-laghu-siddhantakaumudi-part-1/


This book is a first volume of the series titled Study Guide to Laghusiddhāntakaumudī,
a traditional entry book for Pāṇinian Sanskrit grammar, studied widely in India.
For clear understanding, each sūtra is explained with diagram, translation of each word of the sūtra, and translation of vitti (a short commentary to the sūtra).
This book is ideal for both students and teachers who desire to have a good grasp of traditional Pāṇinian Sanskrit grammar in a proper traditional manner.
This book is written as a part of a series of materials used in a 39 month Vedanta and Sanskrit course at Arsha Vidya Gurukulam in Anaikkatti, Tamil Nadu, India, conducted by Sri Pujya Swami Dayananda Sarasvati.


Auspicious Start


Today is an auspicious day to start this study,
because it is Monday, the day of Shiva.
The lord Shiva gave the Maaheshvarasuutra to the sage Panini, who composed this sutra literature to describe the entire Sanskrit language system.
May Paarvatii, Shiva, and Panini give us grace to study.

Today is an auspicious day also because it is Ekadashii, the day I observe a religious fasting to remember the lord Vishnu.
May Lakshmii and Vishnu give us grace to continue studying.

>> Let's start from the prayer before studying >>